More than half a century of quantifiable evidence, proves beyond all reasonable doubt that:
- what has become popularly-known as 'Multi-Level Marketing' (aka 'Network Marketing') is nothing more than an absurd, cultic, economic pseudo-science.
- the impressive-sounding made-up term 'MLM,' is, therefore, part of an extensive, thought-stopping, non-traditional jargon which has been developed, and constantly-repeated, by the instigators, and associates, of various, copy-cat, major, and minor, ongoing organised crime groups (hiding behind labyrinths of legally-registered corporate structures) to shut-down the critical, and evaluative, faculties of victims, and of casual observers, in order to perpetrate, and dissimulate, a series of blame-the-victim rigged-market swindles or pyramid scams (dressed up as 'legitimate direct selling income opportunites'), and related advance-fee frauds (dressed up as 'legitimate training and motivation, self-betterment, programs, recruitment leads, lead generation systems,' etc.).
- Apart from an insignificant minority of exemplary shills who pretend that anyone can achieve success, the hidden overall net-loss/churn rate for participation in so-called 'MLM income opportunities,' has always been effectively 100%.
In February 2015, while Villaraigosa was considering running for the United States Senate, the L.A. Times reported that he'd received at least $162 000 from 'Herbalife.' The story questioned whether 'Herbalife's' co-opting of Villaraigosa might become a major obstruction to his hopes for further election success in California, due to 'Herbalife's' awful reputation and ongoing FTC pyramid scheme investigations.